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Direct & Indirect

हम किसी के द्वारा कही गई बात को दो प्रकार से बोल सकते हैं।

पहला - हम किसी की बात को ज्यों का त्यों बोल दें।

जैसे - राम ने कहा “मैं बलवान हुं।”

Ram said,"I am strong."

said - reporting verb

"i am strong" - reporting speech

इसे Direct narration कहते हैं।

दुसरा - किसी की कही गई बात को अपने शब्दों में कहना।

राम ने कहा की वह बलवान है।

Ram said that he was strong.

इसे indirect narration कहते हैं।

Direct को indirect में बदलने के नियम

reporting speech के inverted comma(" ") व reporting verb के बाद के comma(,) को हटा दें व दोनों भागों को जोड़ने के लिए किसी शब्द का प्रयोग करें सामान्य वाक्य के लिए यह that होता है।

Reporting verb यदि say,says,will say या said होतो indirect में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा।

reporting verb के साथ to लगा होतो परिवर्तन होगा।

say to - tell

says to - tells

will say to - will tell

said to - told

यदि reporting verb के बाद to लगा हो तो object भी होगा अतः tell/told के बाद object लगायें।

यदि reporting verb का tense, past tense है तो reporting speech के tense में निम्न प्रकार के बदलाव होंगे।

Direct Indirect
present indefinitepast indefinite
present continuouspast continuous
present perfect Continuouspast perfect continuous
past indefinitepast perfect
past continuouspast perfect continuous
past perfectNo change
past perfect continuousNo change
will/shallwould/should
can/maycould/might
could,would,should,might,mustNo change

यदि reporting verb का tense, past tense है तो reporting speech के words में निम्न प्रकार के बदलाव होंगे।

DirectIndirect
agobefore
nowthen
thisthat
thesethose
herethere
todaythat day
tomorrowthe next day
yesterdaythe previous day
last night/weekthe previous night/week
next weekthe following week

तथ्य

यदि कोई शाश्वत सत्य, आदत, कहावत या काल्पनिक स्थित reporting speech में आये तो reporting speech का tense नहीं बदलेगा चाहे reporting verb भूत काल का हो।

reported speech के pronoun में निम्न प्रकार के परिवर्तन होते हैं।

1st person pronoun(i,we,....) - change according subject

2nd person pronoun(you,your,..) - change according object

3rd person pronoun(he,she,his,......) - No change

Rule -1,2,3 - SON

जैसे - Seema said to me,"You are not working hard."

Seema told me that i was not working hard.

यहां you object, me के according, i में बदल गया।

past tense के according, present continuous को past continous में बदला गया है।

Sheena said to me,"You have helped me yesterday."

sheena told me that i had helped her the previous day

He said,"renu, i love you."

He told renu that he loved her.

Interrogative Sentence

यदि प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य में reporting verb say/say to, says,says to, will say/will say to तथा said/said to है तो indirect बनाते समय उन्हें ask, asks, will ask, asked में बदलेंगे।

दोनों भागों को जोड़ने के लिए that के स्थान पर if या whether का प्रयोग करते हैं।

प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य को simple वाक्य में बदल कर प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह को हटाकर full stop(.) लगायेंगे।

She said to me,"Did i not call you in the morning ?"

She asked me whether she had not call me in the morning.

She said to her sister,"May i use your pen ?"

She asked her sister if she might use her pen.

Wh-family

wh-family(what, why,who,...) वाले वाक्यों में दोनों भागों को जोड़ने के लिए किसी भी शब्द का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता यह काम wh-family शब्द ही कर देते हैं।

He said to mohan,"what do you want ?"

He asked mohan what he want.

MOM said to me,"Why are you sad ?"

MOM asked me why i was sad.

Imperative Sentence

Imperative sentence में भाव के अनुसार said to के स्थान पर requested,adviced, warned, suggested, command, ordered,proposed या asked में बदलेंगे।

दोनों वाक्यों को जोड़ने के लिए to का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Negative वाक्यों में Do not के स्थान पर not to लगाया जाता है।

He said to servent ,"Give me a glass of water."

He ordered to servent to give him a glass of water.

He said to his sister,"Don't touch my books."

He warned his sister not to touch his books.

Let से शुरू होने वाले वाक्य

यदि let से किसी प्रस्ताव सुझाव या इच्छा का बोध होतो said to को proposed to, suggested to या wished to में बदले हैं।

दोनों को that से जोड़ते हैं और let को हटाकर should का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Sheena said to me,"Let us go home."

Sheena proposed me that they should go home.

यदि let से आज्ञा या आदेश के भाव का बोध हो तो said to को requested या ordered में बदलते हैं।

दोनों वाक्यों को to से जोड़ते हैं।

Mohan said to his boss,"Let me go home early to day."

Mohan requested to his boss to let him go early that day.

Exclamatory Sentence

आश्चर्य या गहरी भावना के लिए विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्यों का प्रयोग किया जाता है। इन वाक्यों का indirect बनाने के लिए said को reporting speech में आये भाव सुचक शब्द के अनुसार बदलेंगे

Exclamatory wordsaid replace by
oh!exclaimed with sorrow
wow!exclaimed with joy
what!exclaimed with surprise
ha!exclaimed with joy
ah!exclaimed with sorrow
alas!exclaimed with sorrow
how!exclaimed with surprise
hurrah!exclaimed with joy

Reporting speech के शब्द what और how को very या great से बदलते हैं।

very विशेषण व great संज्ञा से पहले आता है।

She said,"Oh! I lost my mobile !"

she exclaimed with sorrow that she had lost her mobile.

She said,"How neat and clean my clothes are !"

She exclaimed with satisfaction that his clothes were very neat and clean.

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